想变胖先交税:英国政府立法帮国民减肥 | 双语阅读

FT每日英语 2018-06-14

根据2014年的华盛顿大学调查,在英国成年人当中,超过六成有肥胖问题。为遏制越发严重的国民肥胖趋势,英国政府正式展开减糖对策,推行“糖税”,促使含糖饮料“减甜”。


虽然“糖税”听起来新鲜,但政府想方设法帮国民减肥的事并不罕见。还有哪些国家出过“奇招”?



Photo credit: Getty Images


The "ground-breaking" sugar tax on soft drinks has come into force in the UK from April 6, a move that will lead to some higher prices as the country seeks to battle childhood obesity.

4月6日起,英国针对软饮料开始“开创性地”征收糖税,此举会使该国在对抗儿童肥胖的同时,导致饮料价格的上涨。

 

“Our teenagers consume nearly a bathtub of sugary drinks each year on average, fuelling a worrying obesity trend in this country,” Public Health Minister Steve Brine said.“The soft drinks industry levy is ground-breaking policy that will help to reduce sugar intake, whilst funding sports programs and nutritious breakfast clubs for children.”

“我国的青少年平均每年喝下的含糖饮料,几乎相当于1个浴缸的容量,这加剧了我国本就令人担忧的肥胖趋势。”公共卫生部长史蒂夫·布莱恩表示,“对软饮料产业进行征税是一项开创性的政策,有助于减少摄糖量,同时也能资助儿童运动项目和儿童营养早餐俱乐部。”


① ground-breaking ['graʊndˌbreɪkɪŋ] adj. 全新的;开拓性的

例句: Half an hour of exercise a day can add an extra five years on your life, a ground breaking research has revealed.

一项具有突破性的研究表明,每天锻炼半小时能让你多活5年。


② levy ['levi] n./v. 征收;征(税)

例句: As it stands, up to 20 cities and states are considering imposing such a levy on soda.

按照现在的情况,多达20个城市和州正在考虑强制实行对碳酸饮料征税。


Photo credit: Getty Images


The levy is being applied to manufacturers - whether they pass it on to consumers or not is up to them. Drinks with more than 8g of sugar per 100ml will face a tax rate equivalent to 24p per litre. Those containing 5-8g per 100ml will face a slightly lower rate of tax, of 18p per litre.

此次征税主要针对制造商——至于这份税款是否要转至由消费者来承担,全取决于制造商自己。每100毫升饮料中如果含糖量超过8克,则需缴纳约每升饮料24英镑的税款,而如果每100毫升饮料含糖量在5-8克之间,则税率相对较低,约每升饮料18英镑。

 

Pure fruit juices will be exempt as they do not carry added sugar, while drinks with a high milk content will also be exempt due to their calcium content.

纯果汁饮品将被排除在此次征税范围之外,因为纯果汁中没有添加糖分,同时含奶量较高的饮料因为其含钙也被免税。


Photo credit: Getty Images


经过了两个多月的实施,“糖税”在英国确有一定成效,芬达等大牌饮料都纷纷减甜或是减小包装来适应新的税法。


The graduated levy has prompted some of the country’s largest soda-makers to slash the sugar in their beverages.

此次分级征税促使了英国一些最大的汽水生产商大幅削减饮料产品中的糖分。

 

Coca-Cola has changed the recipe for Fanta. San Pellegrino sodas in the United Kingdom now have 40 percent less sugar. The reduction has been so dramatic that the British Treasury has cut its revenue forecast for the levy almost in half to reflect the shrinking number of soft drinks with a taxable amount of sweetener.

可口可乐已经更改了芬达的饮料配方,英国的圣培露汽水现在也减少了40%的糖分。这一削减幅度非常大,以至于英国财政部已经将税收预测下调至最初的一半,反映了含有可征税甜味剂的饮料数量的减少。


③ graduated ['ɡrædʒu.eɪtɪd] adj. 分等级的;分层次的

例句: The U.S. military wants to avoid the graduated escalation that marked the Vietnam War.

美国军方希望避免类似越南战争那种逐步升级的态势。


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Because of the reformulations, the Treasury now expects the levy to raise only about 240 million pounds ($336 million) in its first year, less than half of its prior forecast of 520 million. In England that income is being invested in schools sports and breakfast clubs.

由于制造商们进行的再调整,财政部现在预期第一年该项税收仅为2.4亿英镑(约合3.36亿美元),比先前预期的5.2亿英镑减少了一半。在英格兰,该税收将用于投资学校运动和早餐俱乐部。

 

Products such as cakes, biscuits and other foods are not covered by the tax, although a separate initiative is encouraging manufacturers to reduce the sugar content of those items voluntarily.

蛋糕、饼干和其他一些食物类产品并不在此次征税范围内,尽管有另一项提案正在鼓励制造商自愿降低这些食品的含糖量。


Photo credit: Getty Images


英国民众对“糖税”的推行褒贬不一,有的人认为这是个减肥的好机会,也有的人认为这纯属胡闹,只会加重穷人的负担——


Screenshot: Twitter


英国的政客和专家们倒是一致觉得“糖税”是英国一项成功的、开创性的举措,将成为各国的榜样。


Politicians and public health experts have cheered the news, which they say will reduce obesity and diabetes. “Our Sugar Tax is even more effective than hoped,” tweeted George Osborne, the former finance minister, noting the latest product changes. “That means less sugar and better health.”

政客和公共卫生专家都为这一消息而欢欣鼓舞,他们认为这一政策会减少肥胖和糖尿病。英国前财政部长乔治·奥斯本注意到了最新的产品变化,他在推特中写道:“我们推行的糖税比预期的还要有效果。这一政策能减少糖,让人更健康。”


obesity [əʊ'biːsəti] n. 肥大,肥胖

例句: The British government has decided to wipe out the obesity epidemic through a novel strategy - by offering fat people cash incentives.

英国政府日前提出一项消除肥胖泛滥的新战略——决定向减肥人士提供现金奖励。


Photo credit: Getty Images


As Osborne and others have noted, the design of the British sugar tax is unique. Other countries, such as Mexico and South Africa, and U.S. cities, including Philadelphia and Berkeley, created their taxes with the goal of decreasing consumption of sugary drinks. But the British tax was designed to encourage soda-makers to cut the sugar in their products. It incentivizes these “reformulations,” as they are known in the industry, by charging two separate rates based on total sugar content.

正如奥斯本和其他一些人所指出的,英国的糖税是独一无二的。其他一些国家,例如墨西哥、南非和一些美国的城市,包括费城和伯克利,他们制定税法时的目的是减少含糖饮料的购买量。但英国的税法旨在鼓励汽水制造商们削减他们产品中的糖分,根据产品总的含糖量,按照两种不同的税率进行征税,以此来激励制造商进行“再调整”。



事实上,英国并不是第一个通过立法来帮助国民减肥的国家,墨西哥、美国等都推行过类似的汽水税。可以说为了降低国内的肥胖率,各国都想尽办法各施其才。都有过哪些“奇招”呢?



丹麦是全世界第一个把“让人民减肥”的想法投诸到税法中的国家。2011年丹麦开始实施脂肪税,但是由于全国人民吃的欲望太过强烈,该税法仅实行15个月就遭到废除。


In 2011, the Danish government tested out a policy never before seen in the world. It implemented an across-the-board tax on all foods with a saturated fat content above 2.3 percent, with the hopes of reducing consumption of unhealthy foods.

2011年,丹麦政府试推了一项世界上前所未有的政策——对所有饱和脂肪含量超过2.3%的食物进行全面征税,希望借此减少人们对不健康食品的消费。


across-the-board [ə'krɔsðə'bɔ:d] adj. 全面的;定时播送的

例句: As one of the basic relations of social operation, labor relation has also been affected across-the-board.

劳动关系作为社会运行的基础关系之一,也受到了全面的影响。


Photo credit: Getty Images


After being voted for by an overwhelming majority of MPs, the tax on saturated fat led to inflation, cross-border shopping, job losses and huge administrative costs. It had very little effect on the consumption of saturated fat because Danish shoppers downgraded to cheaper brands from budget supermarkets, often in cheaper countries. It did, however, clobber the poor — as indirect taxes usually do. 

在得到压倒性多数议员投票支持实施后,这项饱和脂肪税导致了通货膨胀、跨境购物、失业和巨额的行政成本。该税法对饱和脂肪食品的消费量影响甚微,因为丹麦的购物者们降低了要求,转而前往廉价超市购买廉价商品,通常还前往消费更便宜的国家去购买。然而,它的确对穷人造成了一定打击,如同大多数间接税一样。


Since it had a negligible impact on consumption, it is unlikely to have had any impact on health. Once it became clear that the fat tax was creating lots of costs and no benefits, an overwhelming majority of MPs voted to repeal it. In January 2013, 15 months after it was introduced, it was abolished.

因为它对于消费的影响几乎可以忽略不计,所以它也不太可能会对健康产生任何影响。一旦人们明确地发现脂肪税会带来大量的成本而并无益处时,压倒性多数议员又通过投票废除了这一税法。2013年1月,在颁布了15个月后,脂肪税被彻底废除。



尽管全国人民体重超重率只有3%左右,但日本却早早地就开始关注国民的体重。从2008年开始,日本就强制地方政府和企业检查国民的腰围。


In 2008, Japan’s Ministry of Health passed the ‘metabo’ law and declared war against obesity. The law mandates that local governments and employers add a waist measurement test to the annual mandatory check up of 40-75 year olds. For men and women who fail the test and exceed the maximum allowed waist length of 33.5 and 35.4 inches, they are required to attend a combination of counseling sessions, monitoring through phone and email correspondence, and motivational support.

2008年,日本卫生部通过了“metabo”法案,并向肥胖宣战。法律规定,地方政府和企业雇主要在40-75岁员工的年度强制体检中加上一项腰围检查,男性的腰围不得超过33.5英寸,女性的腰围不得超过35.4英寸。腰围超过这一数值而未通过检查的员工,需要接受一系列措施,包括咨询服务,电话和电邮监控,以及动机方面的支持。


Photo credit: Getty Images


Non-compliance has no individual consequence. The responsibility of adherence to the program falls to employers or local government. These providers are required to ensure a minimum of 65% participation, with an overall goal to cut the country’s obesity rates by 25% by year 2015. Failure to meet these goals results in fines of almost 10% of current health payments.

违规的人不必承担个人后果,雇主或地方政府承担着遵守实施该计划的责任。他们需要确保参与率至少达到65%,总体的目标是截止到2015年能将国内的肥胖率降低25%。若未达成这些目标,则要缴纳当前健康支出的10%作为罚款。


adherence [əd'hɪərəns] n. 坚持;遵守

例句: The Chinese side appreciates Armenia for its adherence to the one-China policy and its firm support on the question of Taiwan.

中方赞赏亚方坚持一个中国政策,感谢亚在台湾问题上给予中方的坚定支持。



对于迪拜来说,帮助国民减肥不需要立法那么麻烦,他们推行了一个简单粗暴的“减肥换金”活动,每减一公斤就可以获得一克黄金...


Dubai Municipality has launched a community initiative under the slogan 'Your Weight in Gold' aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle and encouraging the society members to achieve optimal body weight and maintain it.

迪拜市推出了一项口号为“减肥换金”的项目,旨在促进健康的生活方式,鼓励社会成员达到最佳体重并一直维持。

 

For each kilogram lost, participants will receive a gram of gold, which is currently worth about $45 (£30). Those taking part - dubbed "golden losers" - need to lose at least two kilos to receive the payout. The three participants who lose the most weight will be entered into a draw to win a gold coin worth $5,400.

每减掉一公斤体重,参与者就可以获得一克黄金,目前一克黄金约价值45美元(约合30英镑)。参与者们被称为“黄金减肥者”,他们需要减掉至少两公斤体重才能收获奖金。减重最多的前三名还将通过抽签决定一人赢得一枚价值5400美元的金币。


payout ['peɪaʊt] n. 支出;花费

例句: Employees of investment banks around the globe typically receive a portion of their payout in the form of shares.

通常情况下,全球各家投行雇员的部分薪酬都会以股票形式发放。


Photo credit: Getty Images


The Your Weight in Gold scheme is being sponsored by the Dubai Gold and Jewellery Group and Dubai Multi Commodities Centre (DMCC) . Ahmed bin Sulayem, executive chairman of the DMCC said: "We would highly encourage everyone from all walks of life to take part in this great initiative and hope DMCC’s contribution of AED 100,000 worth of gold coins will help motivate individuals reach the final target of improving and sustaining a healthy lifestyle and consequently a better quality of life."

“减肥换金”项目由“迪拜黄金珠宝集团及迪拜多品种商品交易中心(DMCC)”赞助,DMCC执行主席艾哈迈德·本·苏雷耶姆表示:“我们极其鼓励社会各界人士能够加入到这个伟大的项目中来,希望DMCC提供的价值10万迪拉姆的金币最终能有助于激励个人提高并保持一个健康的生活方式,从而提高生活的质量。”



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